What is the Internet and how it works and who owns it

What is Internet and how it works? We can say that the Internet is the universal language spoken by all human beings and machines, which is common to all. Our lives have been fully integrated into the Internet and we cannot say that today we cannot dispense with them. But, although it is a simple question at first glance, defining the Internet is not so easy. , Because unlike any other technology, the Internet is used the way we want it, where we can define or structure it, but the most important thing is that we use it to communicate with people, communities and countries around the world. So we will highlight it in our article today and we will try in a simple and concise way

Answer the first two questions in the article title, what is the Internet and how does it work?

What is Internet?

The Internet is a network of interconnected and interconnected computer networks that connect the entire world and extend across land, oceans and even space. Some of you may have wondered how this global system works. To understand the nature of the Internet and the idea of ​​its work, we can see it as a system of two basic components, the first component is Hardware, and includes everything from cables and wires that carry data to the computer in front of you.

There are other types of hardware that the Internet relies on mainly for routers, servers, switches, mobile towers, satellites and radio waves, as well as all kinds of devices that can connect to the Internet. All the devices and the previous tools when connected to each other create what is known as the network, and when these networks connect to each other on a global scale, a network of networks is formed, which we know on the Internet.

The Internet is a flexible system that is affected and changes slightly when you enter or exit network elements around the world. Some of these components or components may remain fixed to become part of the Internet Backbone, while other less important and unstable components such as Peripherals may remain connected and disconnected Internet at any time. Your device that connects to the Internet is part of a network. Even if you are a Smartphone or a laptop, you actually connect wirelessly or wirelessly to another network, the Internet service provider or the company that provides you with the Internet connection, which in turn connects to another network and so on. It is just a network of networks as we mentioned and you only need to contact one of them to become part of it.

Who controls the Internet?

No one, but everyone is responsible

Unlike telephone networks, which have been run by one company in most countries over the years, the global Internet consists of tens of thousands of connected networks managed by service providers, individual companies, universities, governments, and others.

If a particular network does not control the Internet, but there are a number of key networks connected through the so-called network access points, points where the main networks connect each other, and so when major networks around the world are connected to each other Sub-nodes are also connected and everyone in the world can connect to one of those networks to connect to any other person or device connected to them.

 Some of these components may be wire connections such as copper, fiber optic or wireless cables such as radio waves, which are the means of data transmission between networks, some of which may be End Points such as computers, smart phones, tablets or any other device used to access the Internet. These components are called clients or clients. The other components that store the data that we seek to use on the Internet are known as servers. Other components, such as routers and switches, are referred to as nodes, which serve as communication points between different subnets

All of the previous hardware was not produced for a network without the second component of the Internet, Protocols. Protocols are a set of laws that a machine (computer, router, or server) can accomplish in order to complete a task. Without these rules and standards, hardware and Internet-connected components cannot successfully communicate or transfer data between these devices. “You will not be able to understand each other in order to communicate with each other. The protocols provide a” way “and a” common language “that devices can follow in order to communicate and send data successfully.

If you are a user of the Internet, I have certainly heard of some of these protocols, for example Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP, which we use to browse pages and websites through the browser, and you can find these four characters before the address of any site. There is also FTP or File Transfer Protocol, which we use to upload files from servers or servers, such protocols and dozens of others create a working environment for all devices to work to become part of the Internet.

One of the most important protocols is the Transmission Control Protocol, known as TCP and IP protocol, often referred to in one name, TCP / IP. The role of these protocols is very important. In short, these protocols include standards for how to send data over the Internet. Otherwise, you need direct physical contact with other devices that want to access the information stored on them, as well as a language shared between you and those devices to make that connection. IP Addresses Each address, regardless of its type or function, has its own Internet or IP address as long as it is connected to the Internet. This way, devices can find each other through that giant network of devices.

Internet addresses consist of binary numbers, a digital system consisting of zero and one only, which is the language spoken by all electronic devices and is the means of sending data in all digital communication systems, the current system of Internet addresses is the fourth version and consists of 32 bit or 32 digits Because every number is zero or one is one unit or bit, using 32 numbers we can get 4.3 billion Internet addresses, which is insufficient for the number of huge devices connected to the Internet so IETF decided in 1991 to start developing a new version of Internet addresses launched by IPv6 consists of 128 parchment To meet the current and future gap, where the new system will provide 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Internet address is different, I do not find a way to pronounce a shorter figure out than to tell you that this figure is equal to the number of atoms on the surface of the entire planet Earth in addition to more than a hundred other planet.

When you want to receive or send data from or to another device connected to the Internet, you must type the address in your browser. Because of the difficulty of saving those long numbers, the idea of ​​domain names was invented. The domain name is the name you type in your browser; the domain name server is referred to as DNS. Its role is to compare the domain name you typed with its IP address to take you directly to it. Domain names are divided into two, top-level names such as com, net, org, edu, gov and second class names such as Google and ibda3world.

If you want to visit an Internet site, start by typing the name of the site in your browser. The IP protocol starts with a connection to the Internet, specifically with the company’s Internet service provider, which will provide you with a temporary Internet address (IP) To another master network until your request arrives at the DNS server, which will translate the name of the site to the corresponding IP address, and transfer your request to the web server or Web server that maintains the site you wish to visit. Successful reception of the data, this data using other protocols to show you understand the language and image, for example, if the texts or images of the browser will use the HTTP protocol to display for you.

If you are connected to a website stored on a server in China, for example, data may pass through multiple countries, servers, routers and adapters until you arrive. This flexible system of data transfer is what makes the Internet a great tool, nothing like its power. Let us take a look at how data is transmitted over the Internet. As we mentioned, to read this article, your computer must connect to the Web server that stores or hosts the World of Creativity and its files, and we will rely on this as an illustration of how data is transmitted over the Internet.

At first, your Internet browser will open and you will write the URL of the world of creativity in order to connect to it. When you do this, your computer will send an electronic request (just electrical pulses but with a specific system) through your Internet connection to your ISP. The company that provided you with an Internet connection line, the routers and devices of your Internet service provider will then direct your request to other servers to eventually reach the DNS name server, which will search as we mentioned for the Internet address corresponding to the name of the website you have written. Your request to about The special web server that stores the correct location you want to visit, and if the Internet did not find your request will be transferred to other servers have more information to conduct further research.

The server will respond to your request by starting to send files and data to the site in the form of a set of data known as the Packets or the Packets, the smallest data transfer unit is bit which represents zero or one, and every eight of the These units make up the byte, and each 1024 byte represents KB and every 1024 KB is Megabyte, each 1024 MB represents one gigabyte and so on, now we go back to the Packet which is a set of data ranging from 1000 bytes to 1500 bytes.

Each Packet contains a header and a footer with information that tells the computers and routers responsible for directing this packet in the right way about what it is inside, the address to which it should go and the address coming from it, as well as how to integrate it with other data to get the data in its final form. Each packet is a stand-alone unit that takes the most appropriate route according to several variables, the most important of which is the avoidance of congestion and congestion in the Internet. This feature will ensure the continuous transmission of data in the event of damage to parts of the Internet Net as long as there are still some points of contact that work, but of course the data will take longer.

When this packet arrives, your computer will set it up according to the standards and rules of the protocols. Your device knows exactly how the other party hacked the data into a small packet because it follows the same agreed protocol so it will be able to rearrange it easily. The result will be the article you are reading now, all other forms of online communication follow the same simple streamlined approach, e-mails, video clips, Internet telephony, and instant messaging programs all communicate in the same way.

We have answered the first two questions in the title of the article and know what the Internet is and how it works, but of course the more you look at a device, a component or a protocol than what we mentioned or did not mention, you will notice that the reality is much more complicated than the simplified picture we have drawn for the Internet in our article.

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